quinta-feira, 15 de agosto de 2019

GUERRA, CONQUISTA, ESPÓLIO E SUBJUGAÇÃO.

Sobre as consequências impostas por vencedores a vencidos.

Segundo John Maynar Keynes, na sua publicação intitulada:
THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PEACE (Grande Guerra . Tratado de Versalhes - 1919)

É de notar que, na antiguidade, a facção vencedora de uma guerra capturava todos os bens do vencido e escravizava o povo pertencente à parte derrotada. Nas Guerras Civis acontecia coisa semelhante e na Portuguesa os vencidos foram também espoliados. Por vezes quem "financiava" o conflito imponha ao vencedor um pagamento ou retorno correspondente a boa parte do valor do espólio capturado ao vencido.
Nas guerras económicas e financeiras a tradição ou ciencia militar também se aplica. Espólio pode assumir outros nomes e a servitude (prima da escravatura) também.

A obra acima mencionada dá uma ideia clara dessas realidades e faz a ponte entre processos, lexico e a terminologia moderna da guerra e paz com realidades imemoriais associadas a conflitos armados humanos.

A propósito do Tratado que adveio da capitulação da Alemanha na Primeira Guerra (Tratado de Versalhes), da sua expoliação e prolongada subjugação económica a título de "Compensações de Guerra", Keynes escreveu o seguinte:

"Não se pode ignorar, em termos de resultados associados à produção de excedentes, que baixar o padrão de vida de uma comunidade actua em dois sentidos. Além do mais  há pouco conhecimento sobre a psicologia da raça branca em condições de vida proximas da servidão.
É, contudo, suposto que se todos os excedentes de produção de um homem forem retirados dele, a sua eficiencia e sua industriosidade diminuem. O empreendedor e o inventor não imaginarão (ou planearão), o comerciante e o logista não acumularão (entesourarão), o trabalhador não labutará, se os frutos da sua industria ou esforço forem desviados, não para o beneficio dos seus filhos, da sua aposentação, do seu orgulho ou da sua posição, mas sim para o desfrute de um conquistador estrangeiro."


"It cannot be overlooked, in passing, that in its results on a country's surplus productivity a lowering of the standard of life acts both ways. Moreove, we are without experience of the psychology of a white race under conditions little short of servitude. It is, however, generaly supposed that if a whole of a man's surplus production is taken from him, his eficiency and his industry are diminished. The enterpreneur and the inventor will not contrive, the trader and shopkeeper will not save, the laborer will not toil, if the fruits of their industry are set aside, not for benefit of their children, their old age, their priide, or their position, but for the enjoyment of a foreigner conqueror."

Um país subjugado por uma dívida "soberana", por uma máquina fiscal recolectora, por um sistema judicial e policial que decidam e forçem a aceitação das decisões associadas à "recolha", pode não ser um país livre mas uma "colónia" ao serviço da organização ou personalidade credora. E se a maioria dos excendentes da industriosidade e actividade da população forem retirados por via fiscal ou administrativa, a vitalidade da colectividade tende a extinguir-se.

sexta-feira, 12 de julho de 2019

DEMOCRACIAS


 











«(…) continuo a considerar perigosa em Portugal aquela democracia que toma a forma de parlamentarismo partidário, demagógico, tumultuário, com batuque de carteiras e discursos de nove horas. O meu horror a essa espécie de democracia não mudou. Mas se à palavra [democracia] se pretende dar um significado social de regime para bem do povo, temos direito de reivindicar para nós, com mais direito que outros, a designação de democratas (…)» 

Salazar em declarações a António Ferro citado em Maltez, José Adelino, (2004), Tradição e Revolução. Uma biografia do Portugal Político do Século XIX ao XXI, Vol. II (1910-2005), Lisboa, Tribuna da Historia, pp.430.







Texto incluido na Tese submetida como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Doutor em História, Defesa e Relações Internacionais, de Jorge Manuel Lima da Silva Rocha, intitulada:
"Planeamento de Defesa e Gestão das Alianças
Portugal nos Primeiros Anos da Guerra Fria 1945-1959"
(...) 2. Caracterização da situação interna
a. Análise da situação política nacional (...).



 



terça-feira, 18 de junho de 2019


Earth of Darkness
Joseph Conrad



About the captivated nigger’s they (the Central Station personnel) were carrying in an affluent of the Congo River


“For the rest, the only thing to eat - though it didn’t look eatable in the least - I saw in their possession was a few lumps of some stuff like half-cooked dough, of a dirty lavender colour, they kept wrapped in leaves, and now and then swallowed a pieceof, but so small that it seemed done more for the looks of the thing than for any serious purpose of sustenance. Why in the name of all the gnawing devils of hunger they didn’t go for us—they were thirty to five—and have a good tuck in for once, amazes me now when I think of it. They were big powerful men, with not much capacity to weigh the consequences, with courage, with strength, even  yet,  though  their  skins  were  no  longer  glossy  and  their muscles no longer hard. And I saw that something restraining, one of those human secrets that baffle probability, had come into play there. I looked at them with a swift quickening of interest - not because it occurred to me I might be eaten by them before very long, though I own to you that just then I perceived—in a new light, as it were-how unwholesome the pilgrims looked, and I hoped, yes, I positively hoped, that my aspect was not so—what shall I say?—so—unappetizing: a touch of fantastic vanity which fitted well with the dream-sensation that pervaded all my days at that time. Perhaps I had a little fever too. One can’t live with one’s finger  everlastingly on one’s pulse. I had often ‘a little fever,’ or a little touch of other things—the playful paw-strokes of the wilderness, the preliminary trifling before the more serious onslaught which came in due course. Yes; I looked at them as you would on any human being, with a curiosity of their impulses, motives, capacities, weaknesses, when brought to the test of an inexorable physical necessity. Restraint! What possible restraint? Was it superstition, disgust, patience, fear - or some kind of primitive honour? No fear can stand up to hunger, no patience can wear it out, disgust simply does not exist where hunger is; and as to superstition, beliefs, and what you may call principles, they are less than chaff in a breeze.
Don’t you know the devilry of lingering starvation, its exasperating torment, its black thoughts, its somber and brooding ferocity? Well, I do. It takes a man all his inborn strength to fight hunger properly. It’s really easier to face bereavement, dishonour, and the perdition of one’s soul - than this kind of prolonged hunger. Sad, but true. And these chaps too had no earthly reason for any kind of scruple. Restraint! I would just as soon have expected restraint from a hyena prowling amongst the corpses of a battlefield. But there was the fact facing me - the fact dazzling, to be seen, like the foam on the depths of the sea, like a ripple on an unfathomable enigma, a  mystery  greater—when  I  thought  of  it—than  the  curious, inexplicable note of desperate grief in this savage clamor that had swept by us on the riverbank, behind the blind whiteness of the  fog.”


Notes:
The pilgrims are not missionaries. They are called pilgrims, it seems, because they carry long staves or poles. They are agents, employed at the Central Station, and their only desire is to get a job at a trading station: they do nothing, they only want ivory to make money, they hate each other, and treat the natives badly.










Other quotes:

The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much.
(...)
It is impossible to convey the life-sensation of any given epoch of one’s existence — that which makes its truth, its meaning — its subtle and penetrating essence. It is impossible. We live, as we dream — alone…
(...)
I don’t like work — no man does — but I like what is in work — the chance to find yourself. Your own reality — for yourself, not for others — what no other man can ever know.
(...)
We could not understand because we were too far and could not remember, because we were travelling in the night of first ages, of those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign — and no memories.
(...)
I have wrestled with death. It is the most unexciting contest you can imagine. It takes place in an impalpable grayness, with nothing underfoot, with nothing around, without spectators, without clamor, without glory, without the great desire of victory, without the great fear of defeat, in a sickly atmosphere of tepid skepticism, without much belief in your own right, and still less in that of your adversary. If such is the form of ultimate wisdom, then life is a greater riddle than some of us think it to be.